What does it do?
Changes from previous versions
Transliteration Map (ITRANS encoding)
Main User Manual - idoc.itx
ITRANS table for all languages
Bengali - beng.itx
Devanagari Devnac - dvnc.itx
Devanagari Devnag - dvng.itx
Gujarati - gujdoc.itx
CS/CSX - icsx.itx
Kannada - kantex.itx
Punjabi - pundoc.itx
Romanized Devanagari - romancsx.itx
Tamil - tamil.itx
Telugu - tlgutx.itx
Example: LaTeX to DVI/PS/GIF/PDF
Example HTML - ISO Latin1
Example HTML - Unicode
Online Interface to ITRANS
Type in text or upload .itx files.
Web, EMail, Win32, etc tools.
ITRANS Document Archives, Email Groups
Hindi lyrics, Sanskrit documents, Bengali documents, etc.
Version 5.30, July 2001
Minor Updates Version 5.31, December 2009
Minor Updates Version 5.32, February 2011
Minor Updates Version 5.34, April 2013
© 1991-2011, Avinash Chopde
A package for printing text in Indian languages using English-encoded input.
Online Interface to ITRANS
This page is here for historical purposes, this package is no longer
under active development, nor is there any support available.
All major operating systems now support Unicode, and have built-in input
methods to enter Indic script letters, so it should be possible to use built-in
techniques for Indic script output.
Original objective: Back in the late 1980s, there were no simple methods of creating
text to be output in Indian language scripts. Open source was taking off, and I wondered
if could be possible to use some of the time and energy
of interested people to create long-lasting archives of documents
in Indian languages. There were Devanagari fonts available, but many were custom made
and overloaded the Latin1 char codes to create a non-standard glyph mapping and were
certainly hard to use for text input. More importantly, documents created using these
fonts are subject to serious digital rot - it would be very unlikely that future
computer systems would be able to read them legibly.
So, there was the need for a system that would allow anyone to create documents in
Devanagari script with ease, and for a system that could create documents which would be
accessible years and even decades after creation. Given that all the major Indian languages
have a similar list of consonants and vowels, it would also be nice to have the
input codes for multiple languages be similar - and maybe even allow transliterated
output between languages - Hindi words using Telugu alphabet output for example.
And most importantly, a hook was needed - a way to get a large number of people
interested so they could contribute texts using that system.
With all those goals, building on some existing tools, ITRANS was conceived and built as
the core set of tools, and the ITRANS Song Book started as an example of an archive
of documents resulting from contributions of multiple people.
The best looking Devanagari font at that time was one built by Frans Velthuis. TeX
was (still is!) a very flexible typesetting system, and would allow creation of
various type of output pages - from single page layouts, to flyers, to books.
ASCII keyboard for input was chosen - the codes are all English letters and punctuation
marks. This was important since those layouts
are widely used and most everyone has access to one.
As a graduate student from India, just as for many Indians, Hindi film songs
are very popular, and so I created a few samples of
reverse-transliterated lyrics - Hindi text written with ITRANS English codes - and posted
the details on the Usenet group rec.music.indian.misc. This was the beginning of the
ITRANS Song Book.
It managed to interest a sufficient number of motivated people, and the whole thing
grew. Now there are a good number of documents available in this format,
a list of a few is present below ITRANS Document Archives.
- January 2006
ITRANS - Indian Language Transliteration Package
© 1991-2001 by Avinash Chopde. All Rights Reserved.
Devanagari (Sanskrit/Hindi/Marathi), Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Bengali,
Gujarati, Gurmukhi, and Romanized Sanskrit script output.
Output in TeX, HTML, Unicode.
ITRANS is a pre-processor, converts English-encoded text into various
Indian Language scripts for printing or for display.
The input text to ITRANS is in a transliterated form, each letter
in an Indian Script is assigned an English equivalent, and the
English letters are used to represent what will eventually print out in
the Indian Language Script.
ITRANS offers a choice of two input encodings:
ITRANS Encoding, and the CS/CSX encoding.
ITRANS encoding is a 7-bit ASCII encoding (English alphabet),
while the CS/CSX encoding is a 8-bit encoding.
The ITRANS encoding uses multi-character English codes
to represent each Indic Script letter, while the CS/CSX encoding uses a
one-character code to represent each Indic Script letter.
[See ITRANS/doc/icsx.itx in the ITRANS archive for more details regarding
ITRANS supports three kinds of output interfaces: one for TeX documents, one
for PostScript documents, and a third for HTML documents.
The TeX interface is available for most languages, while the PostScript
interface is available for PostScript fonts only, and the HTML interface
is available for TrueType or Unicode fonts only.
The HTML Unicode output uses UTF-8 format, and supports all languages.
ITRANS 5.3 New Features (released July 2001)
The only addition to this release is the support for Unicode UTF-8 output.
Unicode output is supported for Oriya and Malyalam also, in addition
to all the scripts supported for the TeX interface. Scripts supported for
Unicode: Bengali, Devanagari (Hindi/Marathi/Sanskrit), Gurmukhi (Punjabi),
Oriya, Malayalam, Romanized Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu.
ITRANS package itself
does not include any Unicode fonts, so this feature is useful
only on systems that have a Unicode font for Indian Languages.
Version 5.3 also includes pre-built binaries for installation on i386 Linux
systems or Windows systems.
ITRANS 5.2 New Features (released Feb 2000)
ITRANS 5.2 is completely compatible with the older ITRANS 5.1 or 4.04
release, so any documents encoded in ITRANS 5.1 or 4.04 will work correctly with
ITRANS 5.2 was released Sep 1998, and ITRANS 5.22 in Feb 2000.
Here's a list of major new features added to ITRANS 5.2 (for a complete
list, look at the CHANGES file present in the ITRANS archive).
New fonts added.
Bwti, a Bengali font, and
Pun, a Gurmukhi font for Punjabi,
added to ITRANS.
Input encoding extended with new codes.
ITRANS 5.1 is fully compatibile with ITRANS 4.04 encoding.
A few new codes are now also accepted:
Added additional ITRANS codes:
RRi == R^i RRI == R^I
LLi == L^i LLI == L^I
' == .a (only when #usecsx is in effect)
Added "Y" (yya in the IFM file), and changed: f --> Y
Added "J" (jadot in the IFM file), now y, z == J.
Jump to the
Transliteration Map for a complete
listing of the ITRANS encoding.
#include= command searches for files in more directories.
added as a new ITRANS command, this command will behave as if the
given file name was copied in at that point. Can appear anywhere
in the document, and can have nested #include commands (to some maximum).
This command now searches for <filename> in all directories
defined in the environment variable ITRANSPATH.
#endfont= command added.
and extended #<langfont>, mainly for ease of use
with direct HTML output mode of ITRANS.
#endfont=</FONT> % this is a global command, for all languages
#hindifont=<FONT FACE="Xdvng"> % this is language specific
now, every #hindi will then print <FONT FACE="Xdvng">
& any #end<lang> will print </FONT>
Download ITRANS 5.3 from here files/itrans/
2013: Latest version is: ITRANS 5.34 (9 Apr 2013) (run itrans -h to see version).
The directory contains source and binary packages, and included contributed docs for
additional install instructions on integrating with MiKTeX:
2013 PDF: itransi-MiKTeX.pdf,
2003 PDF: itransi.pdf.
On Ubuntu, install the two packages: itrans and itrans-fonts
That may or may not contain the latest versions, check the above directory for the latest versions.
Warning: Do not download without reading this:
Installing ITRANS and configuring all
tools required to make it work is a
non-trivial task, and unless you already
have installed packages such as TeX, dvips, GhostScript
on Windows or Unix platforms and configured them correctly,
it will not be worth your while to attempt an ITRANS installation.
It is much easier to use the Online ITRANS interactive tool,
or the ITRANS-Email server, these tools are described elsewhere on
this page and can be used from most web browsers or email programs.
End of Warning
[MacOs X(10.2)/Darwin 6.0]
MacOS X port of ITRANS 5.3 developed by Shrisha Rao
The file to download is
and instructions are available at
Dvaita Web Site - ITRANS
ITRANS 5.3 Encoding for Devanagari (Hindi/Marathi/Sanskrit)
This section describes the ITRANS encoding, for Devanagari. This is the
basic encoding used for all Indic language scripts. Consult the
individual language manuals in the ITRANS archive (ITRANS/doc/*.itx
files, also available
for online browsing)
for exact details on every language supported by ITRANS.
Vowels (dependent and independent):
a aa / A i ii / I u uu / U
RRi / R^i RRI / R^I LLi / L^i LLI / L^I
e ai o au aM aH
k kh g gh ~N
ch Ch j jh ~n
T Th D Dh N
t th d dh n
p ph b bh m
y r l v / w
sh Sh s h L
x / kSh GY / j~n / dny shr
R (for marathi half-RA)
L / ld (marathi LLA)
Consonants with a nukta (dot) under them (mainly for Urdu devanagari):
k with a dot: q
kh with a dot: K
g with a dot: G
j with a dot: z / J
p with a dot: f
D with a dot: .D
Dh with a dot: .Dh
Anusvara: .n / M / .m (dot on top of previous consonant/vowel)
Avagraha: .a (`S' like symbol basically to replace a after o)
Ardhachandra: .c (for vowel sound as in english words `cat' or `talk')
Chandra-Bindu: .N (chandra-bindu on top of previous letter)
Halant: .h (to get half-form of the consonant - no vowel - virama)
Visarga: H (visarga - looks like a colon character)
Om: OM, AUM (Om symbol)
[As shown, many codes have multiple choices, example "RRi / R^i" implies you
can use either "RRi" or "R^i"]
List of sites that archive ITRANS documents
There are many WWW and FTP sites that store documents in ITRANS format.
The documents can be retrieved in their input format which is the
transliterated form in English, or in the output format which displays
the text in the Indian Language Script.
The Indian Language Script output is may be in the form of a PostSript
file, a GIF image, or HTML ISO-Latin1 or Unicode output.
ITRANS Song Book hosted at this site, contains
some hindi and marathi lyrics, displayed using dynamic fonts in
Netscape 4.0+ and IE 4.0+. Note that this is an old, historical archive.
Newer archives exist, with a lot more songs, for example:
is a lyrics archive of Hindi songs, primarily from films but
also from many non-film genres including Ghazal, Bhajan, Geet, and Pop.
As of 2005, it contained over 10,000 lyrics.
Sanskrit Documents List
contains a large collection of ITRANS encoded
Sanskrit documents, multiple online tools, email tools, and
many other items related to Sanskrit.
Bengali documents -- lyrics of almost all songs Tagore composed.
a WWW Interface to a large collection of Marathi Song Lyrics
in ITRANS format
contributed by many Marathi enthusiasts,
also includes links to RealAudio files where available.
Yahoo email group, low volume:
itranshindi on yahoo
This list is incomplete, if you know of any more sites that archive
ITRANS documents and allow public access to the documents, send me e-mail,
I'll list them here.
ITRANS tools: WWW, E-mail processing, etc
As has been pointed out many times by many people, it is very complicated
to configure ITRANS to work correctly on a system with LaTeX, dvips,
Here's a list of some tools that make using ITRANS easier - some are online
tools, others require simple installation:
Online Interface to
ITRANS --- not only can you directly type in text for
ITRANS processing, you can also submit files in ITRANS .itx format
for ITRANS and LaTeX processing.
This interface supports output in GIF, PostScript, PDF, or HTML (Latin1
or Unicode) formats.
[ This is a new version of the
itrans web interface
created by Hari Adiseshu and others. ]
Sanskrit Documents List
has many tools available:
interface for ITRANSing documents using e-mail.
Web Interface, for
GIF/PS/HTML etc output, supports many fonts.
a freeware package for PCs developed by
which interactively converts ITRANS Sanskrit
text into Devanagari scipt (True Type), which can then
be exported or pasted via the clipboard to any application. Itranslator
produces results that are
fully editable, printable on any printer, and of book-quality.
Sanskrit Web - Sanskrit Fonts and Sanskrit Texts many
TrueType, PostScript Type 1, Unicode and OpenType Font formats, and
Website maintained by Ulrich Stieh,
Volker Schuermann's Jaadoo - ITRANS to
Devanagari full screen editor for MS-DOS.
This is an interactive package, instantly shows
what the given ITRANS input will look like in Devanagari. Output can
be an ITRANS file, a printed copy of the ITRANS text, or, on a HP
DeskJet, a print in Devanagari.
This site also has a simple Hindi learning package with 2000
words, using English or German as the basis language.
output in Devanagari.
Not ITRANS related, but if you are looking for Unicode fonts,
David McCreedy's Gallery of Unicode Fonts
Penn State Devanagari Page
CDAC, India, Indian Language Development
HindiWriter - The Phonetic Hindi Writer.
Allows you to type in Hindi without having to remember a new keyboard
layout (no font installation required as it uses the built in Indic
language support provided by Windows). It works in all applications
that support Unicode - including Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office,
Notepad, Explorer, Outlook, Windows/MSN Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger (7
and above), Web Based Email (Hotmail, Yahoo! Mail etc.).
The program uses the iTrans scheme of transliteration.
Starting with version 1.3, a spellcheck dictionary with over 60000 words
is included. This
dictionary works in conjunction with Microsoft Word 2002 (Office XP).
Padma: Mozilla Extension - Transformer for Indic Scripts
Padma is a technology for transforming Indic text between various
public and proprietary formats. This extension runs under
Firefox, Thunderbird or Netscape platforms. Can be used to convert
ITRANS text to Unicode on a web page.
This list is definitely incomplete, if you know of any more ITRANS tools
floating around that should be included here, send me e-mail.
Using the Latex2html ITRANS extensions made by
all the documents in ITRANS are available in online form.
This requires using the latest Latex2html (version 2K.1 or later),
which is a Beta version as of July 2001,
For additional info on using Latex2HTML with ITRANS, visit the ITRANS/contrib/
directory for the latex2html.txt file which contains Ross's original
instructions with some comments I added, and the mkl2h script I used
to generate these documents.
These two files are available in the itransNN.zip source code archive.
The online documents:
All the Indic Script text in the following HTML files is displayed
using .GIF images.
Here are all the more more detailed language manuals:
the above manauls for online browsing use GIF images for Indic text,
these are LaTeX documents converted for display on the Web; printing
these pages will result in poor quality output.
For good quality output, use the PostScript files present in
the itransps.zip archive.
Some example documents:
- LaTeX Example input ( ex_latex.itx ) DVI/PS/GIF/PDF output
- HTML Example - ISO Latin1 fonts containing
Devanagari, Gujarati, Bengali, and Romanized Devanagari text.
- HTML Example - Unicode UTF8 output containing
Bengali, Devanagari (Hindi/Marathi/Sanskrit), Gurmukhi (Punjabi),
Malayalam, Oriya, Romanized Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu.
Time in Boston:
Time in Bombay:
Current Local Time:
(Reload page to update)
Last modified: 22 July, 2001.
Copyright © 1995-2001 Avinash Chopde,
firstname.lastname@example.org. All rights reserved.
Page URL: http://www.aczoom.com/itrans/